Forest Stewardship Council (FSC®):
An independent, nonprofit organization that promotes environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world’s working forests through the development of forest management standards.
FSC specifies expanded protection for rivers, lakes and other water bodies from direct impacts, erosion and chemical runoff, where laws or industry-based best management guidelines are insufficient to protect water quality. They prohibit the use of some of the most hazardous pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals that are still widely used in the U.S. and Canada. FSC requires that ecological functions and values remain intact after harvest. Large clearcuts are not allowed where they threaten the ecological integrity of the forest. They have clear requirements to protect high conservation value forests. In areas where old growth is rare, the extent and values associated with old growth are strictly protected in an FSC certified forest. FSC restricts deforestation, including the conversion of biodiversity-rich natural forests to monoculture plantations or non-forest uses. Plantation certification under FSC is acceptable if semi-natural forests are converted to plantations but limited when conversion is from natural forests.
Source: 1)Domtar Paper – EarthChoice Tool Kit; 2)Why FSC is the Fold Standard for Forest Management. http://us.fsc.org/advantages-of-fsc.189.htm 3) SFI and FSC Certification in North America – A Summary Comparison. www.sfiprogram.org/files/pdf/SFI_FSC_comparison_2010.pdf
Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI®):
A fully independent, nonprofit forest and paper certification program that integrates the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the preservation of wildlife, plants, soil, water and air quality.
SFI program participants must meet or exceed applicable water quality laws and regulations, with measures to manage and protect water bodies and riparian zones on certified lands. They minimize chemical use, and require use of least-toxic and narrowest spectrum pesticides and use of integrated pest management where feasible. SFI also requires proper equipment, training and disposal. Participants must follow all laws, regulations and label directions. Average clearcut size does not exceed 120 acres except where necessary to meet regulatory requirements or respond to forest health emergencies or other natural catastrophes. They require participants to protect lands with ecological, geological, historical or cultural significance including areas with critically imperiled species and communities. Fiber from forests converted to other uses cannot be certified and cannot count toward certified content in labels and claims. SFI requirements apply on plantations and natural forests alike.
Source: 1)Domtar Paper – EarthChoice Tool Kit; 2)SFI and FSC Certification in North America – A Summary Comparison. www.sfiprogram.org/files/pdf/SFI_FSC_comparison_2010.pdf
Material derived from organic matter such as bark and wood waste that can be used to generate energy.
A certificate indicating an entity has paid to have a certain amount of carbon dioxide removed from the environment.
A measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) produced measured in units of carbon dioxide (CO2).
An initiative which neutralizes the impact of emissions.
The process of recording the possession and transfer of wood and fiber from the forests of origin, through the various stages of production and ultimately to the end user.
Wood from legally harvested forests. Controlled Wood may not include timber harvested in violation of traditional and civil rights, wood from High Conservation Forests, genetically modified trees, or wood from forests being converted into plantations.
Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF)
A technique that uses chlorine dioxide for the bleaching of wood pulp, preventing the formations of dioxins.
Greenhouse Gases (GHG)
Gases in the atmosphere that trap the sun’s energy and thereby contribute to the rising temperature of the Earth’s surface. They include ozone, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.
Post-Consumer Waste (PCW)
The reintroduction of waste, produced by the end consumer, back into the manufacturing process. This fiber has been used for its intended purpose and returned for reuse, thereby diverting it from a landfill or incinerator.
Processed Chlorine Free (PCF)
A technique that uses fibers that meet EPA guidelines for recycled or post-consumer content and that have not been rebleached with chlorine containing compounds.
Sources that are replenished by natural processes on a sufficiently rapid pace, essentially allowing for their indefinite use. Sources include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal and biomass.
Source: 1)Domtar Paper – EarthChoice Tool Kit (EAR0044)
THE LACEY ACT
In 2008, the U.S. Congress approved changes in the 1900 LACEY Act that required importers of virtually any product containing plant material, including trees and wood, to certify the content and source of such plant material. The primary objective of these changes is to help stem the importation of illegally harvested wood fiber from the country of origin.
Source: 1)Domtar Paper – EarthChoice Tool Kit (EAR0040)